Tue Jan 24 20:42:55 UTC 2023 - last commit message “hyphenate”

Discrete Fourier Transforms in C++23

Project to explore writing an FFT from scratch and an opportunity to flex the latest C++. The aspiration is to keep up with realtime audio without depending on third-party libraries or firmware.

See the pipeline for this repo, and my best practice guide: “Teach Yourself C++ in 45 years”.


The output of gprof is pretty unfriendly to parse for a person, but piping it through gprof2dot is much clearer. However, in this case it’s highlighting routines in the guts of the thread library.


The challenge is to keep the code readable/maintainable but run quickly: i.e., reserve the weird stuff for the hot spots. Conventional wisdom conditions you to always use const references, but here I’ve simply used const for simplicity and only introduced references when I could measure an improvement.

See the Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithm.

Notable improvements

The results summary below documents the performance of the single core pipe where this job runs.

Full gas runs are built thus:

g++ test.cxx -std=c++23 -Ofast -DNDEBUG

Running on a reasonably-powered VM

It’s quite interesting how the profile changes as you increase core count: single threaded processes suddenly become the bottleneck. For instance, generating a twiddle matrix took 3s on my laptop for 24K bins, but 44s on a higher-powered VM with the DFT increased to 64K bins, simply because that part of the processing is single-threaded.

Below the DFT has far greater bins than is required for DVD quality audio, and it is processing at 1.5 x realtime. It was generated on a 16-core Google Cloud VM with 62GB of RAM.

Running on a low-power VM

The results below are written by the GitLab runner that builds this web page. The VM can just about keep up with 24576 bins at realtime. The twiddle matrix is only 1GB.

#include "fmt/core.h"    // for print
#include "gtest/gtest.h" // for Test, AssertionResult, Message, TestPartResult
#include <algorithm>     // for __copy_fn, copy
#include <assert.h>      // for assert
#include <bits/chrono.h> // for microseconds, steady_clock, duration_cast
#include <chrono>        // for
#include <cmath>         // for sin
#include <complex>       // for operator*, complex, operator""i, abs, exp
#include <execution>     // for for_each, seq
#include <filesystem>    // for directory_iterator, path, operator!=
#include <fstream>       // for ifstream
#include <functional>    // for identity, less
#include <iterator>      // for ostream_iterator
#include <map>           // for map
#include <numbers>       // for pi
#include <numeric>       // for iota
#include <ranges>        // for views
#include <span>          // for span
#include <stddef.h>      // for size_t
#include <stdint.h>      // for uint32_t
#include <string>        // for string, allocator, char_traits, operator+
#include <variant>       // for variant
#include <vector>        // for vector, vector<>::value_type

The number of bins of the DFT is fixed at compile time. However, it's used in
two contexts -- to define the size of containers, and in complex number
calculations -- so multiple versions can be instantiated at compile time to
avoid conversion at run time.
template <class T> constexpr T bins = T{24'576};

The most computationally expensive part of this process is the exponent
calculation below, which must be repeated across all samples for every DFT bin.
However, there's nothing stopping us doing this up front as it doesn't change.

"(n^2) is the sweet spot of badly scaling algorithms: fast enough to make it
into production, but slow enough to make things fall down once it gets there."
-- Bruce Dawson

/// Warn the compiler that this routine is going to make your computer hot
template <typename T> [[gnu::hot]] auto generate_twiddle_matrix() {

  // Initialise matrix
  using row_t = std::vector<std::complex<T>>;
  const auto row = row_t(bins<size_t>);
  auto matrix = std::vector<row_t>(bins<size_t> / 2, row);

  // Populate and return matrix
  for (auto k = 0uz; k < bins<size_t> / 2; ++k)
    for (auto n = 0uz; n < bins<size_t>; ++n) {
      // Casts should be ugly and easy to find
      const auto _k = static_cast<T>(k);
      const auto _n = static_cast<T>(n);
      matrix[k][n] = exp(_k * _n * std::complex<T>{0.0f, 2.0f} *
                         std::numbers::pi_v<T> / bins<T>);

  return matrix;

/// Get the twiddle for a given pair of indices
template <typename T> struct twiddle_t {
  constexpr auto operator[](size_t x, size_t y) const {
    assert(x < bins<size_t> / 2);
    assert(y < bins<size_t>);
    static const auto matrix = generate_twiddle_matrix<T>();
    return matrix[x][y];

// Calculate the sum of all responses for this frequency bin
auto response(std::span<const std::floating_point auto> samples,
              const size_t x) {
  assert(std::size(samples) == bins<size_t>);
  assert(x < bins<size_t> / 2);

  using T = std::decay_t<decltype(samples)>::value_type;

  // Initialise twiddle matrix
  static const twiddle_t<T> twiddle;

  // I wouldn't normally advocate this old-school for-loop style but it's the
  // clearest way to get the sample index into the twiddle calculation
  auto response = std::complex<T>{};

  // Operator overload allows multidimensional array access
  for (auto y = 0uz; y < bins<size_t>; ++y)
    response += samples[y] * twiddle[x, y];

  return response;

I originally wrote this whole process as one large routine but breaking it up
does make the profile results clearer. It's also easier to unit test, benchmark
and refactor.

/// Calculate the response across the samples in each bin of the DFT
auto analyse(std::span<const std::floating_point auto> samples) {
  assert(std::ssize(samples) == bins<size_t>);

  // The incoming floating point type is unwieldy so let's define a type alias
  using T = std::decay_t<decltype(samples)>::value_type;

  // Initialise the results container with the index, this allows us to
  // parallelise the calculation without keeping track of the current element's
  // index
  std::vector<T> dft(bins<size_t> / 2);
  std::iota(begin(dft), end(dft), T{});

  // Remember you must link against tbb for any of this execution policy
  // stuff or it will quietly execute serially
  std::for_each(std::execution::par, begin(dft), end(dft), [&](T &bin) {
    // Convert to a real by scaling the absolute value by the number of bins
    bin = std::abs(response(samples, static_cast<size_t>(bin))) / bins<T>;

  return dft;

/// Dump the DFT results as a CSV for plotting
void write_csv(const auto dft, const std::string stem) {
  assert(not stem.empty());
  assert(std::size(dft) == bins<size_t> / 2);

  using T = decltype(dft)::value_type;

  if (std::ofstream csv_file{"csv/" + stem + ".csv"}; csv_file.good())
    std::ranges::copy(dft, std::ostream_iterator<T>(csv_file, "

/// Write the summary string to file
void write_summary(const auto stats) {

  assert(not stats.empty());

  std::ofstream out{"summary.txt"};
  for (const auto &[key, value] : stats) {
    out << "- ";

    if (std::holds_alternative<size_t>(value))
      out << std::get<size_t>(value);
    if (std::holds_alternative<float>(value))
      out << std::get<float>(value);
    if (std::holds_alternative<double>(value))
      out << std::get<double>(value);

    out << " " << key << "

/// Read a WAV file and return the samples as a container of floating points
template <typename T> auto read_wav(const std::string file_name) {

  // Structure of a WAV header
  struct {
    uint32_t riff_id_;
    uint32_t riff_size_;
    uint32_t wave_tag_;
    uint32_t format_id_;
    uint32_t format_size_;
    uint32_t format_tag_ : 16;
    uint32_t channels_ : 16;
    uint32_t sample_rate_;
    uint32_t bytes_per_second_;
    uint32_t block_align_ : 16;
    uint32_t bit_depth_ : 16;
    uint32_t data_id_;
    uint32_t data_size_;
  } header;

  assert(sizeof header == 44uz);

  // Read WAV header
  std::ifstream audio{file_name};
  audio.read(reinterpret_cast<char *>(&header), sizeof header);

  // Read a block of raw data to analyse
  std::vector<short> raw(bins<size_t>);
  const size_t data_size = std::size(raw) * sizeof(decltype(raw)::value_type);
  audio.read(reinterpret_cast<char *>(raw.data()), data_size);

  // Convert to target type
  return std::vector<T>{raw.cbegin(), raw.cend()};

/// Conversion from degrees to radians
constexpr auto deg2rad(const std::floating_point auto degrees) {
  return std::numbers::pi_v<decltype(degrees)> * degrees /

/// Generate a clean sine wave to play with
auto generate_sine_wave(const size_t count,
                        const std::floating_point auto frequency) {
  using T = std::decay_t<decltype(frequency)>;

  assert(count > 0uz);
  assert(frequency > T{});

  // Initialise a container with the element index
  std::vector<T> samples(count);

  // Populate samples
  for (auto i = 0uz; i < std::size(samples); ++i) {
    const auto x = static_cast<T>(i);
    samples[i] = std::sin(frequency * deg2rad(x));

  return samples;

TEST(dft, initialise_twiddle_matrix) {
  // Generate some test samples
  const auto samples = generate_sine_wave<float>(bins<size_t>, 2000.0f);

  // Twiddle matrix is initialise on first call
  const auto dft = analyse<float>(samples);
  write_csv(dft, "sine_wave");

  // DFT should be half as long as the sample data
  EXPECT_EQ(std::size(dft), std::size(samples) / 2);

TEST(dft, profile_all_wavs_as_floats) {
  // Get list of files to process -- note we haven't specified the vector type
  const std::filesystem::path p{"wav/"};
  const std::vector files(std::filesystem::directory_iterator{p}, {});


  // Start timer for main process
  using namespace std::chrono;
  const auto start_timing = high_resolution_clock::now();

  // Calculate DFT for each file
  fmt::print("Processing {} files
", std::size(files));
  for (const auto &file : files) {

    // Skip any unsupported file types
    if (not(file.path().extension() == ".wav"))

    const std::string file_name = file.path();
    fmt::print("    {}
", file_name);

    // Get samples for a WAV file and analyse
    const auto samples = read_wav<float>(file_name);
    const auto dft = analyse<float>(samples);

    EXPECT_EQ(std::size(dft), std::size(samples) / 2);

    // Get the base file name and write DFT to disk
    write_csv(dft, file.path().stem());

  // Create summary
  const auto end_timing = high_resolution_clock::now();
  const auto diff = duration_cast<microseconds>(end_timing - start_timing);
  const auto samples_per_second =
      1e6f * static_cast<float>(std::size(files) * bins<size_t>) /

  std::map<std::string, std::variant<size_t, float, double>> stats;
  stats["cores"] = std::thread::hardware_concurrency();
  stats["files"] = std::size(files);
  stats["GiB twiddle matrix"] =
      bins<size_t> * (bins<size_t> / 2) * sizeof(float) / std::pow(2.0f, 30);
  stats["s analysis duration"] = static_cast<float>(diff.count()) / 1e6f;
  stats["samples per second"] =
      1e6f * static_cast<float>(std::size(files) * bins<size_t>) /
  stats["DFT bins"] = bins<size_t>;
  stats["x speed up"] = samples_per_second / bins<float>;


TEST(unit_test, basic_conversion) {
  // Floats
  EXPECT_NEAR(deg2rad(0.0f), 0.0f, 0.1f);
  EXPECT_NEAR(deg2rad(90.0f), std::numbers::pi_v<float> / 2.0f, 0.1f);
  EXPECT_NEAR(deg2rad(180.0f), std::numbers::pi_v<float>, 0.1f);

  // Doubles
  EXPECT_NEAR(deg2rad(0.0), 0.0, 0.1);
  EXPECT_NEAR(deg2rad(90.0), std::numbers::pi_v<double> / 2.0, 0.1);
  EXPECT_NEAR(deg2rad(180.0), std::numbers::pi_v<double>, 0.1);

  // Compile time long double
  constexpr auto x = deg2rad(0.0l);
  static_assert(std::is_same_v<decltype(x), const long double>);
  EXPECT_EQ(x, 0.0l);

TEST(unit_test, sine_wave_generation) {
  // Floats
  const auto floats = generate_sine_wave(bins<size_t>, 100.0f);
  static_assert(std::is_same_v<decltype(floats)::value_type, float>);
  EXPECT_EQ(std::size(floats), bins<size_t>);
  EXPECT_NEAR(*std::ranges::min_element(floats), -1.0f, 0.1f);
  EXPECT_NEAR(*std::ranges::max_element(floats), 1.0f, 0.1f);
  fmt::print("float typeid: {}
", typeid(decltype(floats)).name());

  // Doubles
  const auto doubles = generate_sine_wave(bins<size_t>, 100.0);
  static_assert(std::is_same_v<decltype(doubles)::value_type, double>);
  EXPECT_EQ(std::size(doubles), bins<size_t>);
  EXPECT_NEAR(*std::ranges::min_element(doubles), -1.0, 0.1);
  EXPECT_NEAR(*std::ranges::max_element(doubles), 1.0, 0.1);
  fmt::print("double typeid: {}
", typeid(decltype(doubles)).name());

  // Long doubles
  const auto long_doubles = generate_sine_wave(bins<size_t>, 100.0l);
      std::is_same_v<decltype(long_doubles)::value_type, long double>);
  EXPECT_EQ(std::size(long_doubles), bins<size_t>);
  fmt::print("long double typeid: {}
", typeid(decltype(long_doubles)).name());

WAVs processed during profiling